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High-speed Interconnect in data center

Author:Utoptical Date: 10/10/2018 SHARE

High-speed Interconnect in data center


Today most data centers have attributed the SFP and QSFP form factors to AOC, DAC cabling as well as optical transceiver. By focusing on only a few types and purchasing high unit volumes, greater leverage of scale can be achieved in the cables and transceivers and all the equipment they link to such as switches and network adapters.


At present, the data center employs SFP and QSFP+ form factors in AOCs, DACs and both multimode transceivers and single-mode transceivers. DACs use copper wires. Parallel 4-channel AOC , SR4 transceivers and PSM4 transceivers use eight optical fibers; single-channel transceivers and AOCs(SR, LR) use two fibers. CWDM4 transceivers and LR4 transceivers use two fibers and multiplex four channels in one fiber to save fibers costs over long distance.


Even though the fibers and LC connectors are already at the lowest cost points, the problem is that the single-mode transceivers are expensive and hard to manufacture, which are extremely complex to build,it requires many different material systems. Basically, the longer the distance needs to send the data, the higher the price will be, because the technology gets more complicated and harder to manufacture.


Most single-mode transceivers are designed using a great deal of manual labor and piece part assembly in processes designed to meet the demands of low volume telecommunication market. The new ultra-large data centers are purchasing parts in record numbers and the method of part manufacturing is difficult to scale up.


So data centers often use an array of different high-speed interconnect matching each interconnect type to specific reach requirements. AOCs are used from 3 meters to about 30 meters after which installing long cables becomes difficult. DAC is the lowest cost ,however, after about 3-5 meters, the wire acts like a radio antenna and the signal becomes unrecognizable. More expensive multimode transceivers, with optical connectors, can be up to 100 meters.Some eSR4 multimode transceivers links can be up to 300-400 meters .


Single-mode fiber uses a tiny 9um light carrying core so the signal pulse stays together over  long haul distances and can travel literally between continents. Parallel single-mode transceivers (PSM4) with 8-fibers can be up to 500m-2km. After 500 meters, the cost of 8 fibers adds up with each meter, therefore multiplexing the four channels signals into only two single fibers is more economical over long fiber runs. CWDM4 is used for up to 2 km and LR4 up to 10km.



High-speed interconnects all strive to implement the lowest cost links achieve the highest net data throughput and transmit over various distances,in order to achieve these goals, various technologies are often used each of which has its own set of benefits and limitations.Data center professionals want to build all links with single-mode fiber, duplex LC connectors and single-mode transceivers. Creating high-speed interconnect links between servers and storage, switches and routers involves many different types of technologies in order to minimize the cost involved. With large data centers buying tens of thousands of devices, costs add up might be worth investing in this capability and dealing with the system complexity it requires.


If you are interested in UTOPTICAL full range of optical transceivers & cables ,please visit :UTOPTICAL Online Store.

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